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Automatic Generation of Lead Sheets from Polyphonic Music Signals

Jan Weil¹, Thomas Sikora¹, Jean-Louis Durrieu², Gaël Richard²

¹Communication Systems Group
Technische Universität Berlin

²Institut Telecom
Telecom ParisTech
CNRS LTCI

A lead sheet is a type of music notation which summarizes the content of a song. The usual elements that are reproduced are the melody, chords, tempo, time signature, style and the lyrics, if any. In this paper we propose a system that aims at transcribing both the melody and the associated chords in a beat-synchronous framework. A beat tracker identifies the pulse positions and thus defines a beat grid on which the chord sequence and the melody notes are mapped. The harmonic changes are used to estimate the time signature and the down beats as well as the key of the piece. The different modules perform very well on each of the different tasks, and the lead sheets that were rendered show the potential of the approaches adopted in this paper.

This is the website accompanying the ISMIR 2009 [1] paper.

Example lead sheets

The second column of the following tables links to the reference Lead Sheet generated by Band In A Box (BIAB); the third column points to the automatically generated Lead Sheet.

The audio result is an mp3 stereo file which is best listened to through headphones. The left channel contains the input audio signal (mixed down to a single channel); the right channel contains the resynthesized analysis results: the (unquantized) melody is syntesized using FM synthesis, chords are synthesized using Shepard tones [2], the detected beat is marked by a click signal, the downbeats are emphasized.

The following 11 songs were used for the melody note transcription evaluation.

Complete Examples
Song title
Original BIAB Leadsheet
Automatically Generated Leadsheet
Audio Result
Remarks
Bridge Over Troubled Water - Simon & Garfunkel
pdf (PDF, 17,8 KB) [3]
pdf (PDF, 215,3 KB) [4]
mp3 (MP3, 1,7 MB) [5]
Can't Buy A Break
pdf (PDF, 47,1 KB) [6]
pdf (PDF, 204,3 KB) [7]
mp3 (MP3, 1,3 MB) [8]
beat tracking failed
Careless Whisper - George Michael
pdf (PDF, 7,8 KB) [9]
pdf (PDF, 85,1 KB) [10]
mp3 (MP3, 549,6 KB) [11]
Close To You - Hoffman & Livingston & Lampl
pdf (PDF, 18,0 KB) [12]
pdf (PDF, 110,4 KB) [13]
mp3 (MP3, 963,7 KB) [14]
Daytripper - Beatles
pdf (PDF, 15,4 KB) [15]
pdf (PDF, 119,0 KB) [16]
mp3 (MP3, 669,4 KB) [17]
Do You Want To Know A Secret - Beatles
pdf (PDF, 15,7 KB) [18]
pdf (PDF, 155,5 KB) [19]
mp3 (MP3, 973,5 KB) [20]
Hard Day's Night - Beatles
pdf (PDF, 31,8 KB) [21]
pdf (PDF, 271,6 KB) [22]
mp3 (MP3, 1,9 MB) [23]
Here Comes The Sun - Beatles
pdf (PDF, 18,6 KB) [24]
pdf (PDF, 189,4 KB) [25]
mp3 (MP3, 1,3 MB) [26]
Hot Coffee
pdf (PDF, 26,1 KB) [27]
pdf (PDF, 213,8 KB) [28]
mp3 (MP3, 1,5 MB) [29]
I'm A Believer - Monkees
pdf (PDF, 22,4 KB) [30]
pdf (PDF, 231,6 KB) [31]
mp3 (MP3, 1,7 MB) [32]
Killing Me Softly With His Song
pdf (PDF, 24,5 KB) [33]
pdf (PDF, 265,3 KB) [34]
mp3 (MP3, 1,9 MB) [35]



Some examples for which the melody was not estimated
Song title
Original BIAB Leadsheet
Automatically Generated Leadsheet
Audio Result
Remarks
House Of The Rising Sun - Animals
pdf (PDF, 6,5 KB) [36]
pdf (PDF, 143,0 KB) [37]
mp3 (MP3, 1,3 MB) [38]
correctly identified 6/8 meter;
some major/minor chord confusions

Cats - Memory
pdf (PDF, 7,4 KB) [39]
pdf (PDF, 127,7 KB) [40]
mp3 (MP3, 1,7 MB) [41]
correctly identified 6/8 meter;
pitch spelling errors as we do not consider key modulations

Database

The database is a subset of the Rock&Pop db [42] gathered by the Yahoo Biab user group [43].

  • (Make Me Do) Anything You Want - A Foot In Cold Water.Mgu
  • 19th Nervous Breakdown - Rolling Stones.Mgu
  • 2 For The Show - Trooper.Mgu
  • A Little Bit More - Dr. Hook.MGU
  • Ain't No Sunshine When She's Gone - Bill Withers.Mgu
  • All My Loving - Beatles.Mgu
  • All You Need Is Love - Beatles.Mgu
  • American Pie - Don Mclean.Mgu
  • And I Love Her - Beatles.Mgu
  • Angie - Rolling Stones.Mgu
  • Another Brick In The Wall - Pink Floyd.Mgu
  • Another Day In Paradise - Phil Collins.Mgu
  • Anouman.Mgu
  • Arrow Through Me - Paul Mccartney.Mgc
  • At The Hop.Mgu
  • Beach Baby - First Class.MGX
  • Beauty And The Beast - Elton John.Mgu
  • Beginnings - Chicago.Mgu
  • Big Boss Man - Al Smith & Luther Dixon.Mgu
  • Big Log - Robbie Blunt & Robert Plant.Mgu
  • Black Is Black - Los Bravos.Mgu
  • Black Sheep Of The Family.Mgu
  • Blueberry Hill - Fats Domino.Mgu
  • Born To Be Wild - Steppenwolf.Mgu
  • Both Sides Now.Mgu
  • Brain Damage.Mgu
  • Breakin' Up Is Hard To Do.Mgu
  • Bridge Over Troubled Water - Simon & Garfunkel.Mgu
  • Bridge.MGX
  • Brown Eyed Girl - Van Morrison.Mgu
  • By The Time I Get To Phoenix - Glenn Campbell.MGU
  • Bye Bye Love - Everly Brothers.Mgu
  • C.C. Rider.Mgu
  • California Dreamin' - Mama's & Papa's.MGX
  • Can't Buy A Break.Mgu
  • Careless Whisper - George Michael.Mgu
  • Cats - Memory.Mgu
  • Chapel Of Love.Mgk
  • City Of New Orleans.Mgu
  • Close To You - Hoffman & Livingston & Lampl.Mgu
  • Cocaine - J.J. Cale.Mgu
  • Color My World.Mgu
  • Congratulations - Cliff Richard.MGU
  • Crocodile Rock - Elton John.Mgu
  • Daddy Sang Base.MGU
  • Dancing Queen - Abba.Mgu
  • Dark Star - Crossby, Stills & Nash.Mgu
  • Daytripper - Beatles.MGU
  • Do You Want To Know A Secret - Beatles.Mgu
  • Dock Of The Bay.Mgu
  • Doctor Who.Mgu
  • Don't Be Cruel - Elvis Presley.Mgu
  • Don't Cry For Me, Argentina.Mgu
  • Don't Speak - No Doubt.Mgu
  • Don't Stop Thinking About Tomorrow - Fleetwood Mac.Mgu
  • Doolin' Dalton - Eagles.Mgu
  • Down On The Corner - Creedence Clearwater Revival.MGU
  • Downtown.MGX
  • Dream Dream Dream.Mgu
  • Dream Lover.Mgu
  • Driver's Seat - Sniff 'n The Tears.Mgu
  • Eastenders.Mgu
  • Ecoutant - Carole King.Mgu
  • Eight Days A Week - Beatles.Mgu
  • Equinoxe 4 - Jean-Michel Jarre.Mgu
  • Equinoxe 5 - Jean-Michel Jarre.Mgu
  • Equinoxe 6 - Jean-Michel Jarre.Mgu
  • Equinoxe 7 - Jean-Michel Jarre.Mgu
  • Eternal Flame - Bangles.Mgu
  • Every Breath You Take - Police.Mgu
  • Every Day.Mgu
  • Everybody Loves Somebody Sometime.Mgu
  • Everybody's Somebody's Fool.Mgu
  • Everybody's Talkin'.Mgu
  • Exodus [This Land Is Mine] - Andy Williams.Mgu
  • Eye In The Sky - Alan Parsons Project.Mgu
  • Fats Is Back In Town.Mgu
  • Feelin' Groovy - Paul Simon.Mgu
  • Feelings.Mgu
  • Fixing A Hole - Beatles.Mgu
  • Flash Dance - Love Theme.Mgu
  • Flash Dance.Mgu
  • Flintstones.Mgu
  • For Emily - Simon & Garfunkel.Mgu
  • Franklin's Tower - Grateful Dead.Mgu
  • From Me To You - Beatles.Mgu
  • From Russia With Love.Mgu
  • Funky Moves.Mgu
  • Get Ready - Rare Earth.Mgu
  • Girl - Beatles.MGU
  • Girl Of My Best Friend - Elvis Presley.Mgu
  • Goblin Rock.Mgu
  • Golden Road - Grateful Dead.Mgu
  • Goodbye Yellow Brick Road - Elton John.Mgu
  • Goodnight Saigon - Billy Joel.Mgu
  • Great Balls Of Fire - Jerry Lee Lewis.Mgu
  • Green Green Grass Of Home - Tom Jones.Mgu
  • Hang On Sloopy.Mgu
  • Hard Day's Night - Beatles.Mgu
  • Harvest Moon - Neil Young.Mgu
  • Have I Told You Lately.Mgu
  • He Ain't Heavy, He's My Brother.Mgu
  • Help - Beatles.Mgu
  • Here Comes The Sun - Beatles.Mgu
  • Here, There And Everywhere - Beatles.Mgu
  • Het Land Van Maas En Waal - Boudewijn De Groot.Mgu
  • Hey Jude - Beatles.Mgu
  • Hitchhiker.Mgu
  • Homburg - Procol Harum.Mgu
  • Homeward Bound - Simon & Garfunkel.Mgu
  • Hot Coffee.MGU
  • Hotel California - Eagles.Mgu
  • House Of The Rising Sun - Animals.Mgu
  • I Am He.Mgu
  • I Believe - The Platters.Mgu
  • I Can See Clearly Now.Mgu
  • I Get Around - Beach Boys.Mgu
  • I Guess That's Why They Call It The Blues - Elton John.Mgu
  • I Heard It Through The Grapevine.Mgu
  • I Just Called To Say I Love You - Stevie Wonder.Mgu
  • I May Be Wrong.Mgu
  • I Should Have Known Better - Beatles.Mgu
  • I Started A Joke - Beegees.Mgu
  • I Wanna Be Your Man - Beatles.Mgu
  • I Want To Hold Your Hand - Beatles.Mgu
  • I Want You - Bob Dylan.Mgu
  • I Will Always Love You - Dolly Parton.Mgu
  • I'll Have To Say I Love You In A Song - Jim Croce.Mgu
  • I'm A Believer - Monkees.Mgu
  • I'm He-Ne-Ry The Eighth I Am - Manfred Mann's Earth Band.Mgu
  • I'm Walkin'.Mgu
  • If - David Gates & Bread.Mgu
  • Ik Zoek Je.Mgu
  • Imagine - John Lennon.Mgu
  • Immer Mehr.Mgu
  • In The Still Of The Night.Mgu
  • It's Not Easy Being Green.Mgu
  • It's Now Or Never - Elvis Presley.Mgu
  • James Bond.Mgu
  • Johnny.Mgu
  • Key To The Highway - Big Bill Broonzy.Mgu
  • Kid Song.Mgu
  • Killing Me Softly With His Song.Mgu
  • Kissin' On The Phone - Paul Anka.Mgu
  • Lawrence Of Arabia - Maurice Jarre.Mgu
  • Lay Down Sally.Mgu
  • Les Paul.Mgu
  • Let It Be Me.Mgu
  • Let It Grow - Eric Clapton.Mgu
  • Let's Twist Again.Mgu
  • Light My Fire - Doors.Mgu
  • Lilly The Pink.Mgu
  • Little Red Riding Hood.Mgu
  • Little Wing - Jimmi Hendrix.Mgu
  • Livin' Doll - Cliff Richard.Mgu
  • Long And Winding Road - Beatles.Mgu
  • Long Long Long - Beatles.Mgu
  • Losing My Religion - R.E.M.Mgu
  • Love Me Tender - Elvis Presley.Mgu
  • Love Minus 0 & No Limit - Bob Dylan.Mgu
  • Love Potion #9.Mgu
  • M.A.S.H. - Mike Altman & Johnny Mandel.Mgu
  • Make Me Do Anything You Want - A Foot In Cold Water.Mgu
  • Massachusettes - Beegees.Mgu
  • Message In A Bottle - Police.Mgu
  • Midnight Hour.Mgu
  • Midnight Special.Mg7
  • Monday Monday - Mamas & Papas.Mgu
  • Money, Money, Money - Abba.Mgu
  • Mother's Little Helper - Rolling Stones.Mgu
  • Mr. Tambourine Man - Bob Dylan.Mgu
  • Mrs. Robinson - Simon & Garfunkel.Mgu
  • My Baby - Cold Chisel.Mgu
  • Norwegian Wood (Reggae Version) - Beatles.Mgu
  • Now And Forever.Mgu
  • Nowhere Man - Beatles.Mgu
  • Nutbush City Limits.Mgu
  • Ob-La-Di Ob-La-Da - Beatles.Mgu
  • Ocean Pearl.Mgu
  • Only The Lonely - Roy Orbison.Mgu
  • Out Of Reach.Mgu
  • Out Of Time - Rolling Stones.Mgu
  • Paranoid - Joe Green.Mgu
  • Pocahontas.Mgu
  • Pretty Woman - Roy Orbison.Mgu
  • Proud Mary - Creedence Clearwater Revival.Mgu
  • Puppet On A String - Sandy Shaw.Mgu
  • Pussicat - Tom Jones.Mgu
  • Radar Love - Golden Earring.Mgu
  • Ramona - Blue Diamonds.Mgu
  • Raw Thrash.Mgu
  • Rebel Rouser.Mgu
  • Release Me - Engelbert Humperdinck.Mgu
  • Rhythm Of The Rain - Cascades.Mgu
  • Ride On Baby - Rolling Stones.Mgu
  • Riders On The Storm - Doors.Mgu
  • Rock Me Out.Mgu
  • Roll Over Beethoven - Chuck Berry.Mgu
  • Run To You.Mgu
  • Sailing - Rod Stewart.Mgu
  • Satisfaction - Rolling Stones.Mgu
  • Second Hand News - Fleetwood Mac.Mgu
  • Send For Me - Ollie Jones.Mgu
  • Sh-Boom.Mgu
  • She Bop - Cyndi Lauper.Mgu
  • She Bugs Out.Mgu
  • She Loves You - Beatles.Mgu
  • Similau.Mgu
  • Since I Fell For You - Lenny Welsh.MGU
  • Sister Sadie.Mgu
  • Sittin' On A Fence - Rolling Stones.Mgu
  • So Sad - Everly Brothers.Mgu
  • Softly - Gordon Lightfoot.Mgu
  • Solitary Man - Neil Diamond.Mgu
  • Somethin' To Live For.Mgu
  • Song For A Winter's Night - Gordon Lightfoot.Mgu
  • Song For Guy - Elton John.Mgu
  • Sound Of Silence - Simon & Garfunkel.Mgu
  • Spanish Harlem.Mgu
  • Spinning Wheel - Blood, Sweat & Tears.Mgu
  • Stairway To Heaven - Led Zeppelin.Mgu
  • Stand By Me - Ben E. King.Mgu
  • Star Trek.Mgu
  • Star Wars.Mgu
  • Streets Of London.Mgu
  • Summertime Blues.Mgu
  • Surfin U.S.A. - Beach Boys.Mgu
  • Take A Message To Mary - Everly Brothers.Mgu
  • Take It Or Leave It - Rolling Stones.Mgu
  • Tears In Heaven - Eric Clapton.Mgu
  • Teddy Bear.Mgu
  • Teen Angel.Mgu
  • Tell Me (You're Coming Back) - Rolling Stones.Mgu
  • Ten Men Workin' - Neil Young.Mgu
  • Teringin.Mgu
  • That'll Be The Day.Mgu
  • The Godfather.Mgu
  • The Great Pretender.Mgu
  • The Letter - Boxtops.Mgu
  • The Way I Walk.Mgu
  • The Way You Move.MGU
  • The Wind.Mgu
  • This Magic Moment.Mgu
  • Those Were The Days - Mary Hopkin.Mgu
  • Tied To A Stake (Staked Out).MGU
  • Time Is On My Side - Rolling Stones.Mgu
  • Total Eclipse Of The Heart - Bonnie Tyler.Mgu
  • Train In Vain.Mgu
  • True Love Ways.Mgu
  • Tube Snake Boogie - Zz Top.Mgu
  • Twist #1.Mgu
  • Una Paloma Blanca - George Baker Selection.Mgu
  • Under The Boardwalk.Mgu
  • Up, Up And Away.Mgu
  • Vera.Mgu
  • Walk Away - Matt Monroe.Mgu
  • Walk Away Renee.Mgu
  • Walk Don't Run - Ventures.Mgu
  • We Are Painting.Mgu
  • We Can Work It Out - Beatles.Mgu
  • What We Do Now.Mgu
  • What'd I Say - Ray Charles.Mgu
  • What's Going On - Marvin Gaye.Mgu
  • Whatever Gets You Through The Night.Mgb
  • Wheels.MGU
  • When A Man Loves A Woman - Percy Sledge.Mgu
  • Where The Boys Are - Neil Sedaka.Mgu
  • Wipeout.Mgu
  • With A Little Help From My Friends - Beatles.Mgu
  • Without You.Mgu
  • Wooly Bully - Sam The Sham & Pharaos.Mgu
  • Wrapped Around Your Finger - Police.Mgu
  • Year Of The Cat - Al Stewart.Mgu
  • Yellow Submarine - Beatles.Mgu
  • You Are So Beautiful - Joe Cocker.Mgu
  • You're Sixteen.Mgu
  • You've Got A Friend - James Taylor.Mgu
  • Your Mama Don't Dance.Mgu
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